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Les apprentis, un plus pour les entreprises

Le dossier

Aujourd’hui, pour bien des professions, la voie de l’apprentissage reste le seul moyen d’accès. On essaie de revaloriser le CFC attribué en fin de formation auprès du public. Car, il faut se le dire, l’apprentissage est en Suisse trop souvent rattaché aux difficultés scolaires. Ce serait la « voie de garage » pour les jeunes qui ne savent pas trop où aller et qui n’ont pas la motivation pour continuer des études à plein temps.

Ceci, probablement, pour plusieurs raisons : à la sortie du cycle, il est rare qu’un jeune sache exactement ce qu’il veut faire pour les cinquante années à venir. S’il a de bonnes notes, on va lui recommander le collège, car c’est là qu’un maximum de portes lui seront ouvertes en fin de formation.

L’apprentissage en entreprise est alors réservé à ceux qui n’étaient que bons avec leurs mains ou aux passionnés qui s’engageaient de façon sûre dans la profession de leurs rêves.

Depuis, ça a changé, l’état a commencé à regrouper des formations entre différents cantons, faute de candidats. Depuis, on informe de plus en plus tôt les élèves dans le but de les orienter dès que possible. Cela se fait via les salons des métiers, les stages en entreprise durant chaque fin d’année ainsi que via les conseillers d’orientation. C’est pourquoi, aujourd’hui, on a chaque année un peu plus d’apprentis. Tous ne sortent pas du cycle d’orientation, car l’apprentissage est aussi une voie que l’on choisit après avoir vu autre chose.

L’Etat et la Confédération travaillent main dans la main depuis une quinzaine d’année afin d’encourager les entreprises à former un ou plusieurs apprentis.  Les cantons octroient un label aux entreprises formatrice afin de faire savoir, qu’eux aussi, ils forment la relève du métier. Mais comment motiver les patrons à devenir formateurs ?

Tout d’abord, ce qu’on peut lire partout où il est question de former un jeune, c’est qu’il ne coûte pas d’argent à long terme. Il peut même en rapporter ! En effet, selon une étude, un apprenti en dernière année peut effectuer environ 70-80% du travail d’un employé diplômé et expérimenté, pour un salaire qui reste quand même bien inférieur. C’est là que les entreprises réussissent à s’y retrouver financièrement et à rembourser les frais occasionnés par la formation de l’adolescent.

Mais ce n’est pas tout, un apprenti heureux dans sa formation et chez son patron va forcément en parler autour de lui. Cette publicité « gratuite » n’est que bénéfique pour une PME. A l’inverse, un apprenti qui ne se sent pas bien dans son entreprise formatrice risque fort de lui faire une mauvaise publicité.

C’est aussi pourquoi il faut bien sélectionner l’apprenti. Prendre le premier qui se présente sans lui faire passer d’entretien ni de stage ne se fait pratiquement plus, et heureusement. Car si le jeune voit qu’après un an de formation ça ne lui plait pas, une rupture de contrat devient alors un an de frais pour l’employeur.

Le futur apprenti doit être intéressé par la formation. Un stagiaire qui ne pose aucune question a peu de chances d’être un apprenti motivé par la suite. Ensuite, il faut pouvoir aider l’apprenti s’il s’avère avoir des difficultés avec un domaine. Ceci en lui donnant des tâches précises qui ciblent le problème et en restant derrière lui pour le conseiller et lui porter secours au moment où il sera face à ses difficultés.

N’oublions pas que c’est aussi pour l’avenir qu’il est utile de devenir formateur. Tout apprenti qui termine son CFC est un employé de plus sur le marché du travail. Mais, c’est aussi de la crédibilité pour l’entreprise : Si elle est capable de former un jeune au métier, c’est qu’elle utilise de bonnes techniques, qu’elle offre un travail de qualité.

Or, un apprenti, c’est aussi du sang neuf, de la motivation et l’obligation de se tenir à la point de la technologie. Il va apprendre les dernières techniques lors de ses cours professionnels, ce qui oblige quelque part les patrons à suivre l’évolution.

Enfin, un apprenti qui est ravi de la formation qu’il a eu, peut se voir revenir un jour en tant qu’employé avec un bagage apprit ailleurs ou directement après l’apprentissage. C’est là le meilleur investissement pour l’entreprise car on engage quelqu’un qui est formaté pour l’entreprise et qui en connait déjà le fonctionnement.

La formation apporte de bonnes choses si l’on prend soins de l’apprenti mais peut s’avérer pénalisante tant pour l’image que pour les finances si l’apprenti est traité comme de la main d’œuvre bon marché. Mais n’oublions pas qu’il s’agit avant tout de transmettre un savoir, de faire suivre un bagage pour la vie. Alors s’il fallait perdre un peu d’argent dans une entreprise, c’est peut-être le meilleur domaine pour le faire.

 

Romain Wanner/Rédacteur d’Actu PME

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