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Ethos, logos, pathos : le modèle de communication d’Aristote

La chronique

Il y a quelques mois, en vue de préparer une formation à la prise de parole en public pour ses collaborateurs, j’ai eu l’occasion de partager un bon repas avec mon client. Ce manager, grec d’origine, s’avère passionnant car féru de rhétorique et de linguistique.

Il connait l’origine de nombreux mots qui puisent leurs racines dans la culture hellénique. Quand je lui pose la question de savoir comment dit-on « éthique » en grec, il me répond sans hésiter «éthos». Il ajoute que c’est aussi un concept développé par Aristote en rhétorique grecque et byzantine.

Il m’explique qu’en Grèce antique, lorsque la démocratie naît, de nombreux débats ont lieu et les orateurs s’affrontent face au public. A cette occasion, vers 300 avant Jésus Christ, Aristote, une des figures centrale de la rhétorique, élabore un modèle de communication.

Trois axes régissant les éléments du système et leurs interactions sont nécessaires pour persuader : éthos, logos et pathos. L’éthos est la personnalité et les valeurs morales de l’orateur, l’image que ce dernier projette auprès de son public. Mais aussi son comportement ou sa façon d'être. Logos est le message, constitué de mots, et assemblés en arguments. Pathos correspond aux émotions ressenties par le public.

Une semaine après ce bon repas, j’anime comme prévu ma formation à la prise de parole en public. Au lieu des théories habituelles que je transmets depuis de nombreuses années, je me risque à présenter le modèle d’Aristote et ses trois piliers.

A ma grande surprise, les participants sont immédiatement séduits par la simplicité et la modernité de l’approche. Rassuré, et comme à mon habitude, je les faits amener une bonne partie du contenu. Au sein de groupes, ils élaborent plusieurs recommandations pour chacun des piliers de la communication aristotélicienne. En précisant que pour bien communiquer face à un groupe, il est nécessaire :

  -  Que l’orateur ait une bonne prestance, et que tant son style que sa réputation peuvent contribuer à être crédible et à produire une impression positive sur son public (Ethos)

  -  Que le discours soit structuré, rationnel et logique. Et que l’argumentation mette en avant de manière persuasive et explicite les avantages concrets (Logos)

  -  Que des émotions soient transmises et ressenties par le public. Avec des citations, des métaphores ou des récits. Et que dans ce sens tant la passion que la séduction et l’empathie sont nécessaires (Pathos)

En final, cette formation s’avère être un succès. Grâce à Aristote, les participants connaissent désormais un modèle simple et efficace en communication. Ce qui leur permet de préparer et de réussir au mieux leurs interventions.

Sur le retour de cette formation, je téléphone à mon client pour lui donner un feed-back de l’opération et le remercier pour l’idée qu’il m’a donnée. En concluant l’entretien, il me laisse sur une citation d’Aristote dont je me délecte désormais : «Pour devenir habile en quelque profession que ce soit, il faut le concours de la nature, de l'étude et de l'exercice».

 

Par Jean-Marc Guscetti, Consultant d’Actu PME et formateur en entreprise : http://www.jmg-formation.ch/index.htm

Copyright © d'Actu PME - Tous droits réservés



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